coupon là gì

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From Wikipedia, the không lấy phí encyclopedia

Food stuff ration coupons types I–V for direct laborers and workers in Vietnam, 1976–1986

In marketing, a coupon is a ticket or document that can be redeemed for a financial discount or rebate when purchasing a product.

Customarily, coupons are issued by manufacturers of consumer packaged goods[1] or by retailers, vĩ đại be used in retail stores as a part of sales promotions. They are often widely distributed through mail, coupon envelopes, magazines, newspapers, the Internet (social truyền thông media, tin nhắn newsletter), directly from the retailer, and mobile devices such as cell phones.

The Thủ đô New York Times reported "more than thở 900 manufacturers' coupons were distributed" per household, and that "the United States Department of Agriculture estimates that four families in five use coupons.[2] "Only about 4 percent" of coupons received were redeemed.[2] Coupons can be targeted selectively vĩ đại regional markets in which price competition is great.

Most coupons have an expiration date, although American military commissaries overseas honor manufacturers' coupons for up vĩ đại six months past the expiration date.[3]


The word is of French origin, pronounced [kupɔ̃]. In Britain, the United States, and Canada it is pronounced KOO-pon. A common alternate American pronunciation is KEW-pon.[4]



During the great famine of 18 AH (638 CE), Umar, the second ruler of the Islamic Caliphate, introduced several reforms such as the introduction of food rationing using coupons, which were given vĩ đại those in need and could be exchanged for wheat and flour.[5]

Believed vĩ đại be the first coupon ever, this ticket for a không lấy phí glass of Coca-Cola was first distributed in 1888 vĩ đại help promote the drink. By 1913, the company had redeemed 8.5 million tickets.[6]

Coca-Cola's 1888-issued "free glass of" is the earliest documented coupon.[6][7] Coupons were mailed vĩ đại potential customers and placed in magazines. It is estimated that between 1894 and 1913 one in nine Americans had received a không lấy phí Coca-Cola, for a total of 8,500,000 không lấy phí drinks. By 1895 Coke was served in every state in the United States.[8]

In 1929, Betty Crocker began a loyalty points program and began issuing coupons that could be used vĩ đại redeem for premiums lượt thích không lấy phí flatware. In 1937 the coupons were printed on the outside of packages. The loyalty program ended in 2006, one of the longest loyalty programs.[9]

In nước Australia consumers first[dubious – discuss] came in liên hệ with couponing when a company called Shopa Docket promoted offers and discounts on the back of shopping receipts in 1986.[10]

Types and uses

Coupons offer different types of values, such as discounts, không lấy phí shipping, buy-one get-one, trade-in for redemption, first-time customer coupons, không lấy phí trial offer, launch offers, festival offers, and không lấy phí giveaways. Similarly, there are varied uses of coupons which include: vĩ đại incentivize a purchase, reduce a price, provide a không lấy phí sample,[11] or vĩ đại aid marketers in understanding the demographics of their customer.


Coupons can be used vĩ đại research the price sensitivity of different groups of buyers (by sending out coupons with different dollar values vĩ đại different groups). Time, location and sizes (e.g. five pound vs. trăng tròn pound bag)[12] affect prices; coupons are part of the marketing mix.[13] So is knowing about the customer.[14][12]

Grocery coupons

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Grocery coupons come in two major types:

  • store coupons: issued by the store itself. Some stores will also accept store coupons issued by competitors.[citation needed]
  • Coupons issued by the manufacturer of a product[1] may be used at any coupon-accepting store that carries that product. Part of their function is vĩ đại advertise their offerings and attract new customers.

Some grocery stores regularly double or even triple the value of coupons vĩ đại bring customers into their stores.[2] Periodic special events double or triple coupon values on certain days or weeks.[15]


Coupons exist in more than thở one sườn, and are acquired by customers in a variety of ways.


Historically, verifying the discount offered has been via presenting coupons clipped from newspapers[1] or received in the mail. Some retailers and companies use verification methods such as unique barcodes, coupon ID numbers, holographic seals, and watermarked paper as protection from unauthorized copying or use. Other than thở newspapers, there are also coupon book publishers and retailers who compile vouchers and coupons into books, either for sale or không lấy phí.


By the mid-1990s, "couponing had also moved vĩ đại the mạng internet."[16] An early term was clipless coupons.[17] Later on the term "downloadable coupons" came into use.[18] Options include:

  • Internet coupons: Online retailers often refer vĩ đại these as "coupon codes", "promotional codes", "promotion codes", "discount codes", "keycodes", "promo codes", "surplus codes", "portable codes", "shopping codes", "voucher codes", "reward codes", "discount vouchers", "referral codes" or "source codes".[19] These are typed in before the sale is finalized. Marketers can use different codes for different channels or groups in order vĩ đại differentiate response rates. Free shipping and cashback are additional inducements.
  • Mobile: Smartphone based, these are often distributed via WAP Push over SMS or MMS, and presented at the store or online. These also have advertising benefits even after their expiration date.[20][21]
  • Apps: Related vĩ đại classic coupons are loyalty cards; these have increasingly been superseded by mobile apps.[22]

Iranian government national rations has a mobile tiện ích.[23]


Depending on the jurisdiction, coupons may or may not reduce the sales tax which must be paid by the consumer. The most consumer-friendly tax situation taxes the actual price paid, including when the store does double and triple coupon reductions.[24]

The above applies when the retailer is the source of the coupon, since the product is offered at the post-coupon price. In jurisdictions seeking vĩ đại tax more,[25] if the coupon is issued by the manufacturer, the original price is still paid but some of the price is covered by the manufacturer instead of the consumer and the full price remains taxable.


Coupon manufacturers may or may not place restrictions on coupons limiting their transferability vĩ đại ensure the coupons stay within the targeted market. Since such restrictions are not universal and are difficult and/or costly vĩ đại enforce, limited coupon trading is tolerated in the industry. Organized coupon exchange clubs are commonly found in regions where coupons are distributed. Often coupons are available for purchase at some online sites,[26] but since most coupons are not allowed vĩ đại be sold, the fee is considered vĩ đại be for the time and effort put into cutting out the coupons.

Some types of coupons may be sold. The Thủ đô New York Times not only said "the traffic is legal" regarding selling airline discount coupons, but wrote "check the commercial notices column in The Thủ đô New York Times or the classified advertising section under 'Miscellaneous') in The Wall Street Journal.[27]

During war time or economic hardships, trading or selling ration coupons is an economic crime.[28][29]

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See also

  • Canadian Tire money
  • Coupon (bond)
  • Drug coupon
  • Extreme Couponing
  • Trading stamp
  • Split payment


  1. ^ a b c Randall Stross (December 25, 2010). "Someday, Store Coupons May Tap You on the Shoulder". The Thủ đô New York Times.
  2. ^ a b c "Store-Coupon use sores and spreads". The Thủ đô New York Times. May 5, 1982.
  3. ^ Reed, Charlie. "AAFES, DeCA still accepting expired coupons". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  4. ^ Duryee, Tricia (November 6, 2011). "A Nation Divided on How vĩ đại Say the Word "Coupon"". Dow Jones & Company Inc. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  5. ^ Hamid, Shadi (August 2003), "An Islamic Alternative? Equality, Redistributive Justice, and the Welfare State in the Caliphate of Umar", Renaissance: Monthly Islamic Journal, 13 (8) (see online)
  6. ^ a b Geuss, Megan (October 2010). "First Coupon Ever". Wired. Vol. 18, no. 11. p. 104.
  7. ^ "The Chronicle Of Coca-Cola: The Candler Era". Coca-Cola Company. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  8. ^ Brad Tuttle (April 6, 2010). "The History of Coupons". Time.
  9. ^ Fred Reichheld (1996) The Loyalty Effect, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1996.
  10. ^ Grey, Justin (11 January 2013). "Meet the king of Australia's docket advertising industry". My Business (Australia). Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  11. ^ Dana Canedy (January 2, 1998). "More makers of consumer goods are delivering samples of their products right vĩ đại the front door". The Thủ đô New York Times.
  12. ^ a b "Best Buys". The Thủ đô New York Times. April 14, 1982.
  13. ^ McKenzie, Richard B. Why Popcorn Costs So Much at the Movies: And Other Pricing Puzzles. ISBN 978-0-387-76999-8, 2008.
  14. ^ Charles Duhigg (February 16, 2012). "How Companies Learn Your Secrets". The Thủ đô New York Times Magazine.
  15. ^ "Grocery Stores That Double Coupons". Retrieved 2010-04-13.
  16. ^ "printable". Advertising Age. September 15, 2003.
  17. ^ Gregory Dalton (February 22, 1999). "Clipless Coupons". InformationWeek. p. 87.
  18. ^ "Consumers Find More Ways vĩ đại Save With Downloadable Coupons on". December 15, 2011. Filed Under: Clipless Coupons, Redplum
  19. ^ Claire Cain Miller (November 26, 2008). "In Lean Times, Online Coupons Are Catching On". The Thủ đô New York Times.
  20. ^ Banerjee, Sy, and Yancey Scott (2010), "Enhancing Mobile Coupon Redemption in Fast Food Campaigns", Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, Vol. 4 Iss: 2, pp.97 - 110
  21. ^ Banerjee, Syagnik (Sy), Poddar Amit, Yancey, Scott and McDowell Danielle (2011), "Measuring Intangible Effects of M-Coupon Campaigns on Non-Redeemers" Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, forthcoming.
  22. ^ Bob Tedeschi (September 1, 2010). "How vĩ đại Get Loyalty Card Prices Without Loyalty Cards". The Thủ đô New York Times.
  23. ^ "وزارت کار خبر داد: گسترش اقتصاد کوپنی در ایران". 27 June 2023.
  24. ^ "PS 2007(5), Sales Tax Treatment of Coupons, Scan Cards, Cash Equivalents, Promotional Items, and Rebates".
  25. ^ "". May 6, 2020.
  26. ^ Al Sunshine; Lee Zimmerman (August 8, 2011). "Selling Coupons".
  27. ^ Paul Grimes (October 7, 1979). "Discount Coupons Still Find a Market". The Thủ đô New York Times.
  28. ^ "Held in Ratio Frauds: 3 Seized in Nassau for Selling Coupons for Gasoline". The Thủ đô New York Times. December 12, 1942.
  29. ^ John Darnton (March 3, 1981). "Polish meat-rationing plan called highly complex". The Thủ đô New York Times. first time .. since the war .. 3,000 people vĩ đại administer .. $2 million just for printing coupons

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