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An over-the-top (OTT) media service (also known as Streaming platforms) is a truyền thông service offered directly to tướng viewers via the Internet. OTT bypasses cable, broadcast, and satellite television platforms: the types of companies that have traditionally acted as controllers or distributors of such nội dung. It has also been used to tướng describe no-carrier cellphones, for which all communications are charged as data,[1] avoiding monopolistic competition, or apps for phones that transmit data in this manner, including both those that replace other Call methods[2][3] and those that update software.[3][4][5][6]

The term is most synonymous with subscription-based Clip on demand (SVoD) services that offer access to tướng film and television nội dung (including existing shows and movies for which rights have been acquired from the nội dung owner, as well as original nội dung produced specifically for the service).[5][7]

OTT (Over-the-Top) services also include a range of "skinny" television offerings that provide access to tướng live streams of linear specialty channels. These services resemble traditional satellite or cable TV providers, but the nội dung is delivered via the public Internet instead of a closed, private network with exclusive equipment lượt thích set-top boxes.[8]

Over-the-top services are typically accessed via websites on personal computers, as well as via apps on mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets), digital truyền thông players (including Clip game consoles), or televisions with integrated Smart TV platforms.[9]


In 2011, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), Canada's telecom regulator, stated that it "considers that Internet access to tướng programming independent of a facility or network dedicated to tướng its delivery (via, for example, cable or satellite) is the defining feature of what has been termed 'over-the-top' services".[10]

In contrast to tướng Clip on demand video-delivery systems offered by cable and IPTV, which are tightly managed networks where channels can be changed instantly, some OTT services such as iTunes require that the Clip be downloaded first and then played,[11] while other OTT players such as Netflix, Hulu, Peacock, Disney+, HBO Max, Discovery+, Paramount+, and Amazon Prime Video, offer movie downloads that start playing before the tải về completes (streaming).[12]

The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) categorizes the OTT services into two groups: multichannel Clip programming distributors (MVPDs); and online Clip distributors (OVDs).[13][14]

Virtual MVPDs include such varied services as DirecTV Stream, FuboTV, Sling TV, Hulu + Live TV, and YouTube TV.

The FCC defined an OVD as:[13]

any entity that provides Clip programming by means of the Internet or other Internet Protocol (IP)-based transmission path where the transmission path is provided by a person other than thở the OVD. An OVD does not include an MVPD inside its MVPD footprint or an MVPD to tướng the extent it is offering online Clip programming as a component of an MVPD subscription to tướng customers whose homes are inside its MVPD footprint.


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In broadcasting, over-the-top (OTT) content is the audio, Clip, and other truyền thông nội dung delivered over the Internet, without the involvement of a multiple-system operator (MSO) in the control or distribution of the nội dung. The Internet provider may be aware of the contents of the Internet Protocol (IP) packets, and may be able to tướng block or restrict their transit to tướng kết thúc users (unless that mạng internet provider operates within a jurisdiction that requires "net neutrality"), but is not responsible for the viewing abilities, copyrights, and/or other redistribution of the nội dung. This model contrasts with the purchasing or rental of Clip or audio nội dung from an Internet service provider (ISP), such as pay television, Clip on demand, and from mạng internet protocol television (IPTV).[15] OTT refers to tướng nội dung from a third tiệc nhỏ that is delivered to tướng an end-user, with the ISP simply transporting IP packets.[16][17][18][19]

Types of content[edit]


This section needs expansion with: a thorough, sourced mô tả tìm kiếm of the types of OTT nội dung current transmitted. You can help by adding to tướng it. (December 2016)

OTT television, usually called online television, Internet television or streaming television, remains the most popular OTT nội dung. This signal is received over the Internet or through a cell phone network, as opposed to tướng receiving the television signal from a terrestrial broadcast or satellite. The Clip distributor controls access through an tiện ích, a separate OTT dongle, or a box connected to tướng a phone, PC, or smart television phối. By mid-2017, 58 percent of US households would access one in a given month, and advertising revenues from OTT channels exceeded those from trang web browser plug-ins.[20]

The record of simultaneous users watching an OTT sự kiện was phối at 18.6 million by Disney's Indian Clip streaming platform Hotstar.[21]

OTT messaging is defined as instant messaging services or online chat provided by third parties, as an alternative to tướng text messaging services provided by a mobile network operator.[22][23] An example is the Facebook-owned mobile application WhatsApp, that serves to tướng replace text messaging on Internet connected smartphones.[24][25] Other providers of OTT messaging include Viber, WeChat, iMessage, Skype, Telegram and the now defunct Google Allo.[26]

OTT voice calling, usually called VoIP, capabilities, for instance, as provided by FaceTime, Skype, Viber, WhatsApp, WeChat, and Zoom use open mạng internet communication protocols to tướng replace and sometimes enhance existing operator controlled services offered by mobile phone operators.[25]

Modes of access[edit]

Consumers can access OTT nội dung through Internet-connected devices such as smartphones, tablets, smart TVs,[27] set-top boxes, gaming consoles, and desktop and máy tính xách tay computers. As of 2019, Android and iOS users trang điểm more than thở 45% of the total OTT nội dung streaming audience, while 39% of users use the trang web to tướng access OTT nội dung.[28]

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See also[edit]


  1. ^ Weaver, Todd (1 August 2019). "What a No-Carrier Phone Could Look Like". Purism. Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  2. ^ Fitchard, Kevin (3 November 2014). "Can you hear bầm now? Verizon, AT&T to tướng make voice-over-LTE interoperable in 2015". Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Why Startups Are Beating Carriers (Or The Curious Case Of The Premium SMS Horoscope Service & The Lack Of Customer Consent)". TechCrunch. 25 March 2013. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  4. ^ "A Closer Look At Blackphone, The Android Smartphone That Simplifies Privacy". TechCrunch. 26 February năm trước. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b Tariq, Haseeb. "Council Post: What Is OTT Advertising, And Why Is It A Trend?". Forbes. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  6. ^ Willemyns, Ines (30 September 2021). Digital Services in International Trade Law. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108837538.
  7. ^ Shonk, David J.; Weiner, James F. (20 October 2021). Sales and Revenue Generation in Thể Thao Business. Human Kinetics. ISBN 9781492594222.
  8. ^ Moro-Visconti, Roberto (17 April 2021). Startup Valuation: From Strategic Business Planning to tướng Digital Networking. Springer. ISBN 9783030716080.
  9. ^ "Pluto TV - It's Free TV". Pluto TV. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  10. ^ (CRTC), Government of Canada, Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (3 October 2011). "Results of the fact-finding exercise on the over-the-top programming services". Archived from the original on 3 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Gibbon, David C.; Liu, Zhu (2008). Introduction to tướng Video Search Engines. Washington, DC: Federal Communications Commission (FCC). p. 251.
  12. ^ Cansado, Jose Miguel (13 October 2008). "Will Internet TV Kill IPTV?". Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  13. ^ a b FCC (6 May 2016). Annual Assessment of the Status of Competition in the Market for the Delivery of Video Programming [Seventeenth Report; MB Docket No. 15-158; DA 16-510] (PDF) (Report). Washington, DC: Federal Communications Commission (FCC). pp. 4417–4587. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  14. ^ "FCC Officially Launches OVD Definition NPRM". Broadcasting & Cable. 19 December năm trước. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  15. ^ IPTV is the delivery of television nội dung using signals based on the logical Internet protocol (IP), rather than thở through traditional terrestrial, satellite signal, and cable television formats.
  16. ^ Hansell, Saul (3 March 2009). "Time Warner Goes Over the Top". The Thành Phố New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  17. ^ "Over-the-Top Video and Content Delivery Networks Will Transform Video-On-Demand Provisioning". Electronic Component News. 19 November 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012.
  18. ^ "Why 2011 Is Being Called The Year Of "The Cable Cut"". Business Insider. 30 December 2010. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  19. ^ "Who Is Playing The OTT trò chơi And How To Win It". Business Insider. 30 December 2010. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  20. ^ Andrew Orlowski; Can the last person watching desktop Clip please turn out the light? Archived 2017-08-08 at the Wayback Machine, The Register, 8 Aug 2017 (retrieved 8 Aug 2017).
  21. ^ Manish Singh; Disney’s Indian streaming service, sets new global record for live viewership Archived 5 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine, Techcrunch, 12 May 2019 (retrieved 12 May 2019).
  22. ^ "Chart of the Day: Mobile Messaging". Business Insider. 17 May 2013. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  23. ^ Maytom, Tim (4 August 2014). "Over-The-Top Messaging Apps Overtake SMS Messaging". Mobile Marketing Magazine. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  24. ^ Albergotti, Reed; MacMillan, Douglas; Rusli, Evelyn (20 February 2014). "Facebook's $18 Billion Deal Sets High Bar". The Wall Street Journal.
  25. ^ a b Rao, Leena (4 September 2015). "WhatsApp hits 900 million users". Fortune. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  26. ^ "Apps Roundup: Best Messaging Apps". Tom's Guide. 4 October năm 2016. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  27. ^ Roettgers, Janko (8 January 2016). "LG's New TVs Mix Streaming Channels from Buzzfeed, GQ & Vogue with Traditional Networks". Variety. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  28. ^ Johnson, James (24 January 2019). "OTT Content: What We Learned From 1.1 Million Subscribers". Uscreen. Archived from the original on 2 November 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • "FCC Adopts 15th Report On Video Competition". U.S. Federal Communications Commission. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2014. Announcement of release Report.
  • "User Interface Holds the Key to tướng OTT Success". Pay OTT TV. 11 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2016.